As one of the three major parts of the car, an important part of the chassis, the type of suspension has always been one of the key points that most riders consider when buying a car. Car manufacturers will fully consider the positioning of the vehicle when designing the suspension for the vehicle. Factors such as structure, price, cost, etc., determine which suspension to use. Each type of suspension has its own characteristics, and different suspensions have a great influence on the performance and handling of the vehicle. This leads to some vehicles focusing on sports, focusing on driving experience and handling, while some vehicles focus on driving comfort.
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The car suspension consists of three parts: elastic element, damper and force transmission device, which play the role of buffering, damping and force transmission. The car chassis suspension system is a general term for all the force transmission devices between the frame of the car and the axle or the wheel. The main function of the suspension is to transmit all the forces and moments acting between the wheel and the body, such as support force and system. Power and driving force, etc., and alleviate the impact load transmitted from the uneven road surface to the vehicle body, attenuate the vibration caused thereby, ensure the comfort of the occupant, and reduce the dynamic load of the cargo and the vehicle itself.
In general, there are five types of common car suspensions, including: Leafspring rigid axle suspension, torsion beam semi-independent suspension, double wishbone independent suspension, multi-link independent suspension,
Mcphersonindependent suspension. The following are the respective characteristics.
- Leafspring rigid axle suspension
The longitudinal leaf spring rigid axle suspension is a suspension in which a leaf spring is used as an elastic member and is disposed on the automobile in parallel with the longitudinal axis of the automobile. It also acts as a guiding mechanism, which makes the suspension system greatly simplified, and is generally used in commercial vehicles, such as trucks, pickup trucks, vans, and the like. In general, we will also refer to this type of suspension as a “board suspension.”
This kind of suspension is not used in household cars. Because of its simple suspension structure, low cost and strong carrying capacity, it is widely used in trucks and pickup trucks with high load-bearing requirements. The shortcomings of this suspension are also prominent, and the weight is heavier, the rigidity is large, and the comfort is also poor. Longer longitudinal dimensions are not conducive to shortening the front and rear overhang of the car; the leaf spring pins at the frame joint are prone to wear and tear.
- Torsion beam semi-independent suspension
The torsion beam type semi-independent suspension, also known as the trailing arm type suspension, is different from the leaf spring type non-independent suspension and is mostly used on the rear suspension of the passenger car. The suspension structure is simple and light in weight; when the vehicle is assembled, the rear wheel positioning is not required, which greatly reduces the man-hours of assembly; the small occupied space and the easy access to a large tail space are also a major feature; The spring damper system is easy to match; the torsion beam characteristics can replace the function of the stabilizer bar; during the suspension movement, the toe and track changes are small; the linear stability is good, the rear tire loss is small; The characteristics of the sleeve can reduce the braking nod.
The disadvantage is that the torsional stress and shear stress in the torsion beam require high stress at the welded joint, allowing the load on the rear bearing to be limited by the strength of the torsion beam; to ensure driving stability, the longitudinal swing arm elastic bushing on both sides The point force is complicated; the wheels on both sides interact and the comfort is poor.
- Double wishbone independent suspension
The double wishbone independent suspension, also known as the double A-arm independent suspension. The double wishbone suspension has two upper and lower fork arms, and the lateral force is absorbed by the two fork arms at the same time. The pillar only carries the weight of the vehicle body, so the lateral rigidity is large. The double wishbone type independent suspension has large lateral rigidity, excellent anti-rolling performance, good grip performance, clear road feeling and excellent driving and steering feeling. The shortcomings are also obvious, the manufacturing cost is high, the suspension positioning parameter setting is complicated; at the same time, the complexity of maintenance and repair is high, and the parameters are difficult to determine when positioning the suspension and the four-wheel positioning. Therefore, it is basically not used in ordinary family cars.
4.Mcpherson independent suspension
Mcpherson independent suspension is one of the car front suspensions used by most of the world’s car manufacturers. Most of the models we saw on the market used this type of suspension. The MacPherson suspension consists of a coil spring, a shock absorber, and a triangular hem arm. Most models also incorporate a stabilizer bar. Simply speaking, the spiral spring sleeve is formed on the shock absorber. The shock absorber can avoid the phenomenon of forward, backward, left and right offset when the coil spring is stressed. The spring can only be used for vibration in the up and down direction, and can be used. The stroke length and tightness of the shock absorber are used to set the softness and performance of the suspension.
This suspension has good responsiveness and handling, simple structure, small footprint, low cost and light weight, suitable for large engines and small bodies. Because of these characteristics, it is widely used in car front suspension. Everything has advantages and disadvantages. When the suspension is on uneven roads, the wheels are easily deflected by the road surface, so the driver must use force to maintain the direction of the steering wheel. When subjected to severe impact, the spool tends to cause bending, thus affecting steering performance. The stability is also poor, the anti-roll and brake nodding ability is weak, and the stabilizer bar is relieved after the increase, but the problem cannot be solved fundamentally. This suspension is not very durable, and its shock absorbers are prone to oil leakage and need to be replaced regularly.
- The multi-link suspension
The multi-link suspension refers to a suspension structure which is composed of three or more connecting rods and can provide control directions in multiple directions, so that the tire has a more reliable traveling track. However, nowadays, because the three-link structure can not meet people’s higher pursuit of chassis handling performance, only the four-link and five-link suspension with more precise structure and more accurate positioning can be called truly more. Link type, these two suspension structures are usually applied to the front and rear wheels respectively.
The multi-link independent suspension has good comfort, and its handling performance and double-fork suspension are difficult to be similar; however, the structure is relatively complicated, and the research and development experiment cost and manufacturing cost are relatively high. However, with the development of technology, multi-link independent suspension has been widely used in the rear suspension system of most family cars.
The main content of today is the chassis suspension system of the car. As a manufacturer with many years of experience, AA-TOP can provide high quality rubber parts and suspension parts.